17 Jul 2020

Reported Speech: Direct and Indirect Speech Rules & Examples

Grammar >> English Grammar >> Recported Speech >> Direct Speech >> Indirect Speech

Reported Speech (Narration): Sometimes someone says a sentence. Later, we report what he/she said. This is called Reported Speech.
image: Reported Speech - Rules & Examples @ TeachMatters
जब कोई कुछ भी बात कहता है तो उसे कथन (Speech) कहते हैं। बाद में उसी बात (उसकी कही हुई बात) को जब हम लिख कर या बोल कर किसी और के आगे बताते हैं या उसकी कही हुई बात का जिक्र करते हैं तो उसे 'Reported Speech' कहते हैं।

Direct and Indirect Speech

We may report the words of a speaker in two ways -

किसी व्यक्ति द्वारा कही गई बात को हम दो प्रकार से व्यक्त कर सकते हैं -

(i) Direct Speech - When we quote a speaker's actual words, this is called Direct Speech.

(i) प्रत्यक्ष कथन - जब वक्ता के शब्दों को ज्यों का त्यों व्यक्त करते हैं, तो इसे Direct Speech कहते हैं।

  • Direct Speech Example - Monu said, "I am very busy now."

(ii) Indirect Speech - When we report what a speaker said without quoting his exact words, this is called Indirect Speech.

(ii) अप्रत्यक्ष कथन - जब वक्ता के शब्दों को ज्यों का त्यों न कह कर उसकी बात को अपने शब्दों में व्यक्त करते हैं तो इसे Indirect Speech कहते हैं।

  • Indirect Speech Example - Monu said that he was very busy then.

Note: It will be noticed that in Direct Speech, we use inverted commas to mark off the exact words of the speaker. In Indirect Speech, we do not.

Direct Speech Sentence - Mohan said, "I am going to Delhi."

There are two parts of Direct Speech -

(i) Reporting Speech/Verb - Direct Speech में Inverted Commas से बाहर के भाग को Reporting Verb कहते हैं - Mohan said,
(i) Reported Speech - Direct Speech में Inverted Commas के अंदर के भाग को Reported Speech कहते हैं - "I am going to Delhi."

How to Change Direct Speech into Indirect Speech?

Direct Speech को Indirect Speech में बदलते समय Inverted Commas (" ") को हटा दिया जाता है। Reporting Verb और Reported Speech के बीच लगे Comma (,) को हटा कर उसके स्थान पर आमतौर पर conjunction 'that' का प्रयोग किया जाता है। Reporting Verb का tense न बदलते हुए उसमें Reported Speech के sentence के आधार पर परिवर्तन किया जाता है। Reported Speech के tense को Reporting Verb के tense के आधार पर बदला जाता है। Indirect Speech में Reported Speech का sentence हमेशा Assertive Sentence के रूप में ही बदला जाता है चाहे Direct Speech के Reported Speech का sentence किसी भी प्रकार का हो। Reported Speech के subject और object को Reporting Verb के object और subject के आधार पर बदला जाता है।

Direct Indirect
Amit says, "Ram will write a letter." Amit says that Ram will write a letter.
Sarita says, "I have a doll." Sarita says that she has a doll.
He said, "I am unwell." He said that he was unwell.
He said, "I have passed the exam." He said that he had passed the exam.
Ram said, "The horse died in the night." Ram said that the horse had died in the night.
I said to him, "I don't believe you." I said I didn't believe him.
He asked me, "Where is the station?" He asked me where the station was.

Rules for Changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech

Here are rules for changing a direct statement into indirect speech -

1. Rule for Connectives
Sentence Direct Indirect
Assertive Sentence Amit says, "Ram will write a letter." Amit says that Ram will write a letter.
Interrogative Sentence He asked him, "Where is the station?"
He said, "Is he a doctor?"
He asked me where the station was.
He asked whether (or if) he was a doctor.
Imperative Sentence He said, "Please give me a pen." He requested to give him a pen.
Exclamatory Sentence He said to Ravi, "May you live long !"
He said, "What a horrible scene !"
He wished that Ravi may live long.
He observed that it was a horrible scene.

2. Rule for Change of Person
Person Subjective Case Possessive Case Nominative Case
1st Person I
2nd Person you your/yours you
3rd Person he

Rule 1. In Direct Speech, 1st Person of Reported Speech will be changed according to Subject of Reporting Verb.

Direct: Rahim said, "I am reading a book."
Indirect: Rahim said that he was reading a book.

Rule 2. In Direct Speech, 2nd Person of Reported Speech will be changed according to Object of Reporting Verb.

Direct: Renu said to me, "You are helping your brother."
Indirect: Renu told me I was helping my brother.

Rule 3. In Direct Speech, 3rd Person of Reported Speech will not be changed.

Direct: Mohan said, "She is singing a song."
Indirect: Mohan said that she was singing a song.

Short Trick:

1 = 1st Person 2 = 2nd Person 3 = 3rd Person
Reported Speech 1 2 3
Reporting Verb S O N

S = Subject O = Object N = No Change

Direct Indirect
last night, week, etc.
next week, month, etc.
so/in that way
that day
the day before/the previous day
the next day
that night
the previous night, week, etc.
the following week, month, etc.

3. Rule for Change of Tense
Tense of the Reporting Verb Original Tense of the Reported Speech
Direct Speech
Changed Tense of the Reported Speech
Indirect Speech
Present Tense or
Future Tense
Any Tense No Change
Past Tense Present Indefinite
Present Continuous
Present Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous
Past Indefinite
Past Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
Past Tense Past Indefinite
Past Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
No Change
No Change
Past Tense Will or Shall
Can or May
Universal Truth
Would or Should
Could or Might
No Change
No Change

See Also: English Grammar Practice Test Questions >> Reported Speech Quiz Test >>

Grammar >> English Grammar >> Parts of Speech (शब्द-भेद) >>


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